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WP3 objectives, under Maria Paula Diogo (NOVA)

In parallel with the development over time of the national Science Academies, new Academies of Technologies formed, aiming to assist governments in embedding a culture of science and technology in their diplomatic affairs, with engineers serving as mediators among different countries.

At the same time, embassies were gradually peopled by a new type of diplomat: actors who would eventually be professionalized with the title of Science, Technology and Innovation Counselors and Attachés. This movement, which followed the rise in powers of the Commercial Attachés, was asserted especially from the years 1970-1980, with important nuances according to the countries.

WP3 objectives are to:
• Draw a factual and critical map of actions carried out by Academies and diplomatic networks, over the long term, regarding the circulation of knowledge and the construction of expertise. Reveal what underlies the growing weight of these actors’ expertise in the negotiation of international balances, within Europe and with its external partners.
• Identify fundamental benchmarks for European scientific culture, integrating ethical principles and a vision of science rooted in international cooperation carrying European values. Show how such benchmarking can form the foundation of a doctrine for the future scientific diplomacy of Europe.
• Point to best practices in terms of organization and communication which can allow Academies of Science and Technology and diplomats (especially counselors and attachés) to harness their efforts, adopt efficient modes of exchange (including with international organizations) and to come forward in this way as agents independent of but sympathetic to a European vision of science for world peace.
• As a Transversal Work Package, contribute to the Thematic WPs a supplementary understanding of historical trends in the development of science diplomacy that lie in the background of their case studies; provide feedback on the presence and weight of the InsSciDE global challenges (themes) in these trends and shaping present-day organization of the institutions studied.

Europe appears to have lagged behind the United States in gaining awareness of the importance of science diplomacy as a facet of international relations (David & Patman, 2015).

InsSciDE starts from the hypothesis that Europe benefits from a capital of science diplomacy experience, diffuse but long lived, concrete and offering high potential, which can overcome the lag as long as it is brought to light, exposed to critique, organized and mobilized.