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WP8 objectives under David Burigana (UNIPD)

The beginning of the Space Era transformed Outer Space into a strategic site. Outer Space became a site to be reached, to be explored, and eventually to be occupied. Interconnected civil and military goals made the strategic importance of outer space inevitable, while media exposure made it obvious to the public. Europe progressively invented a new, predominantly cooperative model for member state relationships in Outer Space.

Simultaneously, Outer Space became an arena of “intercultural” cooperation, exemplified by Western cooperation with Soviet Russia and later with China. The real turning point in the history of Space exploration is found when US-Soviet competition gives way to bi- and multilateral cooperation overriding ideological, political and intercultural differences. Intercultural Space Diplomacy shows innovative transnational approaches which can deliver solutions to global problems.

WP8 objectives are to:
• Characterize key practitioners of Space Diplomacy for Earth by analyzing the transnational interplay among actors.
• Analyze the origins, development, management and outcomes of scientific experimentation in orbit relying on international cooperation in Outer Space and on Earth, verifying the potential of non-Space countries to engage in a so-called Space Racks (scientific payload) Diplomacy and become part of transnational communities interested in strategic issues for Earth preservation and human development.
• Assess a new model of Space Diplomacy revealed by bi- and multilateral negotiations in European Space Agency (ESA) Councils involving the EU.
• Identify how, through media communication, European scientists defend their experiments to international space agencies, policy makers, and public opinion.
• Produce and disseminate scientific knowledge on Space Diplomacy, its multifaceted historical and contemporary practices, and its institutional manifestations.

The European approach to the management of orbital scientific experiments is a key field to explore the real potentialities of enlarged international cooperation. WP - Space focuses on Outer Space experiments performed by humans in orbit, showing how across history constraints and difficulties were overcome, and how transnational cooperation practices for space laboratories progressively gave birth to a European science diplomacy in Outer Space. The cases reveal the experience Europeans have forged over time, working with third countries (Russia, the United States and emerging countries), and working together within Europe.