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WP2. Power With Science Diplomacy

Science diplomacy is the important next phenomenon to be addressed in debates on power. The original power concept dates back to Max Weber and direct, coercive power, with roots in Machiavelli and Thucydides (Baldwin, 2002; Nye 2004; Barnett & Duvall, 2005). Political science and sociology have debated power since the early 1960s, conceptualizing successively the faces and forms of power, including indirect, conscience-controlling, discursive and structural power (Bachrach & Baratz, 1962, 1963; Lukes, 1974; Foucault, 1980). International relations, including science diplomacy, has trailed in this debate (Guzzini, 1993) by its focus on the hard power of states (Barnett & Duvall, 2005), probably due to the anarchical nature of international politics (Waltz, 1979; Baldwin, 2002). These omissions are tentatively addressed by use of the concept of soft power (the power of attraction; Nye, 2004), studies of structural power (cf. Guzzini, 1993), discourse (cf. Buzan et al., 1998) or advocacy networks (cf. Keck & Sikkink, 1998).

To date, science diplomacy as concept, historical practice or current strategy has not been critically mapped onto the corpus of political science/international relations theory on power. WP2 goes beyond the state of the art theoretically and strategically. It uses political science/international relations theory on power as well as strategy-building experience to propose analytic and strategic frameworks. These frameworks will be highly useful to discuss European experience and aims for science diplomacy with the practitioners and stakeholders, and will significantly advance the scholarly and strategic discussion.