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Power with Science Diplomacy

Science diplomacy is the important next phenomenon to be addressed in debates on power. The original power concept dates back to Max Weber and direct, coercive power, with roots in Machiavelli and Thucydides (Baldwin, 2002; Nye 2004; Barnett & Duvall, 2005). Political science and sociology have debated power since the early 1960s, conceptualizing successively the faces and forms of power, including indirect, conscience-controlling, discursive and structural power (Bachrach & Baratz, 1962, 1963; Lukes, 1974; Foucault, 1980). International relations, including science diplomacy, has trailed in this debate (Guzzini, 1993) by its focus on the hard power of states (Barnett & Duvall, 2005), probably due to the anarchical nature of international politics (Waltz, 1979; Baldwin, 2002). These omissions are tentatively addressed by use of the concept of soft power (the power of attraction; Nye, 2004), studies of structural power (cf. Guzzini, 1993), discourse (cf. Buzan et al., 1998) or advocacy networks (cf. Keck & Sikkink, 1998).

To date, science diplomacy as concept, historical practice or current strategy has not been critically mapped onto the corpus of political science/international relations theory on power. WP2 goes beyond the state of the art theoretically and strategically. It uses political science/international relations theory on power as well as strategy-building experience to propose analytic and strategic frameworks. These frameworks will be highly useful to discuss European experience and aims for science diplomacy with the practitioners and stakeholders, and will significantly advance the scholarly and strategic discussion.

InsSciDE Power with Science Diplomacy Objectives under Rasmus Gjedssø Bertelsen (UiT)

InsSciDE’s WP2 - Power With Science Diplomacy engages expertise in international relations and political science, as well as history, and philosophy and sociology of science, to provide theoretically-grounded analytical tools for understanding European Science Diplomacy.

The "Power With" European Science Diplomacy theoretical framework enables a degree of common structure and a new depth of elaboration for the historical case studies emerging from the other WPs.

WP2 also explicitly seeks out understanding of strategic dimensions, cross-referencing findings with the European Global Strategy, to contribute a strategy framework that can help leverage historical knowledge for European science diplomacy to better address global challenges.


• Formulate a historically-informed European Science Diplomacy Theoretical Framework (ESD-THEORY) placing science diplomacy within international relations/political science theories on power.
• Using this theoretical framework, provide a transversal layer of structure to the historical studies conducted by WP3-8.
• Propose a European Science Diplomacy Strategy (ESD-STRATEGY) grounded in ESD-THEORY and in the findings of WP3-8.
• Support debate, co-elaboration of the case studies, and generation of strategic recommendations agreed by practitioners and stakeholders in WP1.